ENDINS, núm. 27. 2005. Mallorca|
MINERALOGICAL RECONNAISSANCE OF CAVES
FROM MALLORCA ISLAND
by Bogdan P. ONAC 1, Joan J. FORNÓS 2, Àngel GINÉS 3 and Joaquín GINÉS 2
S’han fet prospeccions des d’un punt de vista mineralògic a divuit cavitats de
l’illa de Mallorca. Han estat identificats, mitjançant anàlisis de difracció de raigs-X,
infraroigs, tèrmics i microscopia electrònica (SEM), 16 minerals que s’engloben dins
de quatre grups químics diferents. La calcita ha estat l’únic mineral present a totes
les cavitats prospeccionades. En espeleotemes de quatre coves diferents s’ha iden-
tificat aragonita, guix i hidroxilapatita. Endemés, també han estat identificats alguns
altres minerals dels grups dels carbonats, fosfats i silicats, presents en forma de
crostes, cristalls diminuts o masses terroses. Els mecanismes responsables de la
deposició mineral en les coves de Mallorca són: (i) precipitació a partir de l’aigua de
percolació, (ii) precipitació en la zona de mescla (aigua dolça – aigua marina), (iii)
reacció entre la roca encaixant i diversos espeleotemes, i les solucions enriquides
en fosfats procedents del guano de les rates pinyades, i (iv) transició de fases mi-
Des del punt de vista de la mineralogia, la Cova de sa Guitarreta i la Cova de
ses Rates Pinyades s’han confirmat com a dues de les coves més destacables;
cada una d’elles presenta vuit autèntics minerals de cova. L’associació de fosfats
que contenen és diversa i interessant.
Eighteen caves on the Mallorca Island were investigated with respect to their
mineralogy. Sixteen minerals, divided into four chemical groups, were identified and
described using X-ray diffraction, infrared, thermal, and scanning electron microsco-
pe analyses. Calcite is the only mineral found in every sampled cave. Aragonite,
gypsum, and hydroxylapatite occur in speleothems from four different caves. In addi-
tion, a few other carbonates, phosphates, and silicates were identified in crusts,
minute crystals, and earthy masses. The mechanisms responsible for deposition of
minerals in the Majorcan caves are: (i) precipitation from percolating water, (ii) pre-
cipitation in the freshwater/seawater mixing zone, (iii) reaction between the bedrock
and various speleothems, and the phosphate-rich solutions derived from bat guano,
and (iv) mineral phase transition.
Cova de sa Guitarreta and Cova de ses Rates Pinyades were confirmed to be
two outstanding cavities with respect to their mineralogy, both hosting eight true cave
minerals. Their phosphate association is diverse and interesting.
Geographic and geologic setting
The island of Mallorca is located in the western
de Llevant, and the Marines de Migjorn i de Llevant,
Mediterranean Sea. The island is the largest and the
which corresponds to the Upper Miocene carbonates
most central in the Balearic Archipelago. From a karstic
(Figure 1). All sampled caves are shown in Table 1
point of view, the island is divided into four main physio-
under their corresponding physiographic unit.
graphic provinces. These are the Mesozoic limestone
Serra de Tramuntana forms a NE-SW-oriented
units of Serra de Tramuntana, Serres Centrals, Serres
medium-high mountain range in the northwestern part of
the island and consists mainly of Mesozoic rocks (inclu-
ding thick limestone beds). The province is famous for
Department of Mineralogy, “Babes-Bolyai” University & “Emil
its karren fields, deep canyons, and vertical caves.
Racovita” Institute of Speleology
, Cluj, Romania.
Serres Centrals occurs in the central part of the
Departament de Ciències de la Terra. Universitat de les Illes
island and includes the elevated carbonate hills of
Departament de Biologia. Universitat de les Illes Balears.
Jurassic age. Within this unit, a number of medium-size
(1975), FORNÓS et al. (1986/87), GINÉS & GINÉS
(1989), RODRÍGUEZ-PEREA & GELABERT (1998),
SERVERA (1995), and GINÉS (1995b). In addition, the
stratigraphy and structure of Mallorca have been outli-
ned in detail by GELABERT et al. (1992), FORNÓS &
GELABERT (1995), and FORNÓS et al. (2002).
Caves and types of speleothems
Eighteen caves were investigated. Ten of these
caves were formed in the Upper Miocene calcarenites.
Eight of the other investigated caves are developed in
Mesozoic limestones (see Table 1). From a speleoge-
netic point of view, GINÉS (1995b) and GINÉS & GINÉS
(1987) divided the Majorcan caves and shafts into four
Figure 1: Geological map of Mallorca with the location of the most
categories: vadose shafts, vadose, phreatic, and littoral
caves. In the present study, the majority of speleothems
Figura 1: Mapa geològic de Mallorca amb la localització de les coves
investigated were collected from caves assigned to the
All types of speleothems formed by dripping, flo-
wing, and seeping water (stalagmites, stalactites,
caves were explored and mapped, the most important
shields, flowstones, crusts, helictites, eccentrics, etc.)
of them being Cova de ses Rates Pinyades.
are well-represented throughout most of the cavities in
Serres de Llevant are the heights in the eastern part
the Mallorca Island (GINÉS, 1995a). In addition, the
of the island that are composed of Mesozoic deposits
subaqueous speleothems, in particular the so-called
that experienced the same alpine tectonic influence as
phreatic overgrowths, are abundant. These phreatic
those in the Serra de Tramuntana unit. The topography,
overgrowths are extremely important in deciphering
however, of Serres de Llevant is less rugged. The karst
Mediterranean sea level changes over the last 300,000
(with very few exceptions) shows an inconspicuous
years (TUCCIMEI et al., 2000; VESICA et al., 2000;
development due to the predominance of dolomites and
FORNÓS et al., 2002; GINÉS et al., 2003).
Earlier studies pointed out that most of the common
Marines de Migjorn i de Llevant unit, is build up of
speleothems are composed of calcite and aragonite
post-orogenic Upper Miocene tabular limestones and
(POMAR et al., 1979; GINÉS et al., 1981). Scanty occu-
calcarenites deposits (POMAR et al., 1990). This unit
rrences of gypsum have also been identified (GINÉS,
fringes the Serres along the southern and eastern
1995a). The main goal of this study is to investigate the
lowlands of the island. Ten of the sampled caves have
less spectacular crusts and earthy masses. In searching
developed within this unit.
for phosphates, special attention was paid to those spe-
Aspects concerning the karst geography and geo-
leothems that were partly or totally covered by bat
logy of Mallorca Island have been described by COLOM
Figure 2: Map of Cova de sa
Figura 2: Topografia simplificada
de la Cova de sa Cam-
Llista dels minerals identificats en coves de l'illa de Mallorca.
List of minerals identified in caves from Mallorca island.
All collected samples (40) received a macroscopic
characterization and afterwards were examined with the
binocular microscope. The identification of minerals was
primarily done by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD). Air-
dried, whole-speleothem XRD samples were prepared
from ground (< 38 µm size) material and run on a Sie-
mens D5000 diffractometer. Diffracted-beam-mono-
chromated Cu Kα was used (40 kV, 30 mA). Digitally
recorded patterns collected between 3° and 80° 2θ (step
size of 0.04° 2θ and count rate of 2 to 4 second/step)
were analyzed with the EVA software (version 22.214.171.124).
Silicon (NBS 640b) was used as the internal standard.
The overall results of the XRD analyses are tabulated in
Table 1 and the representative XRD patterns are shown
in several figures throughout the paper.
The phosphate samples were further investigated
Figure 4: Dolomite crust in Cova de sa Guitarreta (Llucmajor).
by means of the infrared (IR) technique using a Brucker
Figura 4: Crosta de dolomita en la Cova de sa Guitarreta (Llucmajor).
IFS 66 instrument in order to better distinguish between
various types of phosphates.
For scanning electron microscope (SEM) observa-
tions, freshly fractured speleothem fragments or hand-
and Coves de Campanet, but is restricted mainly to the
picked aggregates were gold-coated. SEM investiga-
erratic speleothems (helictites and eccentrics). Some of
tions were made on a JEOL JSM 5510 LV equipped with
the fossil or recent phreatic overgrowths from Cova del
an energy dispersive spectrometer.
Dimoni and Cova des Pas de Vallgornera are aragonitic
Differential thermogravimetric analyses (DTG) were
(GINÉS, 1995a; TUCCIMEI et al., 2000; FORNÓS et al.,
performed on a Netzsch STA 409 EP instrument, heating
2002). No further details are given for calcite and ara-
about 20 mg of sample up to 1000°C at 10°C/minute.
gonite due to their common appearance in the cave
Hydromagnesite was identified solely along two
narrow, slightly ventilated passages from Cova de sa
Results and discussions
Campana (Figure 2) where the calcite coralloids are tip-
ped with a loose, dull white, powdery moonmilk. The
identification of hydromagnesite as the principal consti-
tuent of the moonmilk is based on XRD analyses (Figu-
re 3). The X-ray peaks are sharp indicating that the
Calcite is the only mineral found in every investiga-
material is well-crystallized. The Cova de sa Campana
ted cave, making up the bulk of most of the speleo-
hydromagnesite, however, is very fine grained and no
thems. Aragonite is plentiful in Cova de sa Campana
euhedral crystals were visible under the SEM.
Figure 3: Powder pattern of hydromagnesite moonmilk from Cova de
Figure 5: X-ray diffraction pattern of dolomite.
sa Campana (Escorca).
Figura 5: Difractograma de raigs-X de dolomita.
Figura 3: Difractograma de raigs-X corresponent a “moonmilk” de
hidromagnesita de la Cova de sa Campana (Escorca).
The presence of hydromagnesite in this cave fits
into the depositional sequence of carbonate minerals
proposed by LIPPMANN (1973), in which, after calcite
precipitation, the Mg/Ca ratio increases and hydromag-
nesite is deposited from Mg-rich solutions. This fact sug-
gests dolomitic rocks occur within the carbonate
sequence hosting the cave.
At two different locations within Cova de sa Guita-
rreta, millimeter and sub-millimeter chalky crusts cove-
ring either the bare bedrock or some of the fallen limes-
tone blocks were identified (Figure 4). Occasionally,
these crusts are unevenly covered by a brown dust. The
XRD investigations indicated the presence of dolomite
(Figure 5), a rather common rock type, but a very rare
secondary cave mineral (ONAC, 2004). As the host rock
of the cave is slightly dolomitic (POMAR, 1991), both
theories for dolomite deposition, i.e., direct precipitation
from Mg-rich solutions or alteration of bedrock (revie-
wed by HILL & FORTI, 1997) are applicable. Since the
amount of percolating water is little and taking into con-
sideration the high values for temperature (+22°C) and
humidity (100%) (MIR, 1974), we suspect the second
pathway to be responsible for the formation of dolomite
crusts in this cave.
In Cova de ses Rates Pinyades, directly overlying
Figure 6: Gypsum balls in Cova des Drac (Es Rafal des Porcs, San-
the carbonate bedrock, a millimeter-size white-ochre
crust formed under a guano-rich layer. The XRD pat-
Figura 6: Nuclis esferoïdals de guix en la Cova des Drac (Es Rafal des
terns indicated the material to be composed of brushite
and monohydrocalcite. To date, monohydrocalcite has
been documented from only a few localities worldwide.
In most of these localities, monohydrocalcite was preci-
pitated from aerosols (HILL & FORTI, 1997, and the
reference cited therein). Given the cave setting under
which our sample formed, such a genetic scenario is not
probable. Monohydrocalcite deposition could have been
favored by the presence of organic matter that acted as
nucleation centers as proposed by POLYAK et al.
Gypsum is the only sulfate mineral identified in four
caves from Mallorca (Table 1). In two of the caves,
gypsum is intimately associated with guano deposits.
The gypsum forms unspectacular friable nodules or
ochre moonmilk paste (within the guano accumulation)
Figure 7: Gypsum crusts on the floor of Cova de Cala Falcó (Manacor).
in Cova de sa Guitarreta and white efflorescences on
Figura 7: Crostes de guix en el trespol de la Cova de Cala Falcó
the upper surface of a dry, highly decomposed bat
guano deposit in Cova de ses Rates Pinyades. At both
locations, gypsum seem to be a by-product of bat guano
In Cova des Drac (Es Rafal des Porcs, Santanyí)
(Figure 8). Compact crusts made up of transparent
gypsum occurs on the floor and walls as delicate white
gypsum crystals were collected from the inner part of
cotton balls (a few millimeters in diameter) (Figure 6).
the cave as well. The origin of gypsum in this cave is
Using a binocular microscope, one can see tiny acicular
attributed to the reaction of limestone with sulfate anion
to fibrous crystals making up these balls. Since this spe-
provided by a mixture of seawater/freshwater.
leothem form is found in the middle part of a big hall that
All gypsum XRD spectra were well-resolved; there-
has a natural opening in the ceiling, a sea-spray origin
fore its presence was cross-checked through a series of
for the sulfate anion is suggested. Grey-bluish crusts
thermal analyses. Without exception, the differential
(approximately 0.6 cm in thick) cover the floor and
thermal analysis (DTA) curves show two endothermic
limestone blocks in Cova de Cala Falcó (Figure 7), a
effects at ~180° and 200°C, followed by an exothermic
marine-karstic cave located in Manacor (GINÉS, 1995b)
signal at ~345°C. These are all typical for gypsum.
Figure 8: Map of Cova de Cala Falcó.
Figura 8: Topografia de la Cova de Cala Falcó.
The phosphates are best represented in Majorcan’s
caves in terms of number of species, although, only two
caves hold the majority of these species. Except for
collinsite, which is a rare phosphate, all the others (i.e.,
brushite, hydroxylapatite, carbonate hydroxylapatite,
taranakite, and ardealite) are rather abundant, mirroring
the overall situation from other karst regions (HILL &
Figure 9: a: Crusts and earthy masses of hydroxylapatite and carbona-
FORTI, 1997; ONAC, 2004). The availability of PO
te hydroxylapatite in Cova de ses Rates Pinyades (Inca);
b: Hydroxylapatite in Coves del Pirata (Manacor).
radical is essential for the precipitation of various phos-
phates. In caves, this anion is derived from bat guano.
Figura 9: a: Crostes i masses terroses d’hidroxilapatita i hidroxilapatita
Whenever the PO
carbonatada a la Cova de ses Rates Pinyades (Inca); b:
4 reacts with carbonate host rock or
Hidroxilapatita a les Coves del Pirata (Manacor).
clay minerals a number of phosphates will form.
From a thermodynamically point of view the most
stable phosphate minerals are hydroxylapatite and car-
bonate hydroxylapatite. These species were identified in
four and three caves, respectively (Table 1). In most of
the occurrences, the two minerals are intimately asso-
ciated (Figure 9a) in the form of ochre, reddish brown to
dark brown crusts or earthy masses that cover the walls
or limestone blocks that are located under a bat guano
Figure 11: Map of Cova de sa Guitarreta showing the sampling points.
Figure 10: Infrared spectra of carbonate hydroxylapatite.
Figura 11: Topografia de la Cova de sa Guitarreta amb la localització
Figura 10: Espectre d’infraroigs d’hidroxilapatita carbonatada.
dels punts de mostreig.
Figure 13: XRD patterns of ardealite collected from Cova de sa Guita-
Figura 13: Difractograma de raigs-X d’ardealita recol·lectada a la Cova
de sa Guitarreta (Llucmajor).
Figure 12: Efflorescences of ardealite in Cova de sa Guitarreta (Lluc-
Some locations on the floor in the main hall of Cova
Figura 12: Eflorescències d’ardealita a la Cova de sa Guitarreta (Lluc-
de sa Guitarreta are covered by a thick layer of bat
guano (Figure 11). About 3 m2 of the largest guano
patch is interspersed with a pale white to yellowish finely
powdered material forming unspectacular efflorescen-
blanket (Figure 9b). The thickness of these coatings
ces (Figure 12). The XRD analyses of hand-picked
may vary from less than a 1mm to more than 3-4 cm.
minute crystals showed the typical spectra of ardealite,
Given their XRD patterns are similar, the distinction
another common phosphate cave mineral (Figure 13).
between the two phosphates relies on IR analyses. The
In Cova de ses Rates Pinyades (Figure 14), slabs
samples that showed weak bands at ~876 cm-1 (out-of-
of guano (up to 50-60 cm2) can easily be lifted-up revea-
plane bending), 1385 cm-1, and 1420 cm-1 (antisymme-
ling the weathered outward part of the limestone blocks.
tric stretching) indicate the presence of carbonate
At the surface of the downside part of these slabs, very
groups and therefore were ascribed to carbonate
fine grained crystals of ardealite overgrow brushite.
hydroxylapatite (Figure 10); the samples missing those
Ardealite crystals were also documented from the wea-
absorption bands are typical spectra for hydroxylapatite.
thered layer on the limestone blocks. The XRD patterns
As in most of the other known occurrences, both
are almost identical to those illustrated in Figure 13.
hydroxylapatite and carbonate hydroxylapatite are deri-
Under the SEM, ardealite occurs as aggregates compo-
ved from guano leached phosphate solutions reacting
sed of tiny tabular, subhedral to anhedral crystals
with the limestone bedrock in a neutral to slightly alkali-
(almost always fractured). The image of a single sub-
ne pH environment (HILL & FORTI, 1997).
hedral ardealite crystal is shown in Figure 15.
Figure 14: The sampling points in
the upper chambers of
Cova de ses Rates
Figura 14: Localització dels punts
de mostreig a les sales
superiors de la Cova
de ses Rates Pinya-
Figure 17: X-ray diffraction patterns of brushite.
Figura 17: Difractograma de raigs-X de brushita.
Figure 15: SEM image of a subhedral ardealite crystal.
Figura 15: Imatge SEM d’un cristall subhedral d’ardealita.
Figure 18: XRD patterns of taranakite from Cova de ses Rates Pinya-
Figura 18: Difractograma de raigs-X de taranakita procedent de la Cova
de ses Rates Pinyades (Inca).
Ardealite is an indicator of an acid environment. The
pH of the ardealite-rich zone from Cova de sa Guitarre-
ta must have been below 5.5 since brushite and
hydroxylapatite are completely missing. A different
situation, however, occurs in Cova de ses Rates Pinya-
des. In Cova de ses Rates Pinyades, ardealite and
brushite are in close association. The close occurrence
of these two minerals indicates pH values situated
above 5.5 but below 8 which is the upper limit for bru-
shite nucleation (FERREIRA et al., 2003; ARIFUZZA-
MAN & ROHANI, 2004).
Brushite, another common cave mineral phosphate
was identified in three caves (Table 1, Figure 16a). At all
these locations it was found to be closely associated
with its isostructural mineral: gypsum. Brushite was
positively identified by means of XRD and thermal
Figure 16: a: Brushite deposit in Cova de sa Guitarreta (Llucmajor); b:
analyses. Since all the XRD spectra are very similar and
SEM image of fractured brushite crystals.
well-resolved, the brushite spectrum from the Cova de
Figura 16: a: Dipòsit de brushita a la Cova de sa Guitarreta (Llucmajor);
ses Rates Pinyades is shown in Figure 17. Two endo-
b: Imatges SEM de cristalls de brushita fracturats.
thermic and one exothermic peak are readily observed
on the DTG curve. The first endothermic peak located at
~196°C was assigned to the removal of molecular
water. The peak centered around ~435°C was attribu-
ted to a new dehydration when the earlier formed
CaHPO4 (monetite) is transformed into Ca2P2O7 (amor-
phous) + H2O. The exothermic peak recorded around
500°C marks the crystallization of the amorphous
Ca2P2O7. The thermal behaviors of our samples are in
good agreement with those reported by MURRAY &
DIETRICH (1956) and FIORE & LAVIANO (1991).
SEM images of brushite aggregates show them to
be composed of fractured euhedral crystals, tabular on
(010), up to 20 µm in length, and 4 to 6 µm in width. The
thickness of any individual crystals never exceeds 2 µm
The formation of brushite within these three caves
was interpreted as being the final product of the reaction
between acidic phosphate solutions and limestone
bedrock or blocks buried by guano in damp conditions.
A light ochre, cream-like material was collected
from within the guano deposit in Cova de sa Guitarreta.
Most of the XRD patterns of the material indicate it to be
gypsum. However, the spectrum contains at least 15
Figure 19: SEM microphotograph of platy-like hexagonal crystal of tara-
additional reflections that best fit those of collinsite. This
mineral has been precipitated in a damp microenviron-
Figura 19: Microfotografia SEM de cristalls laminars hexagonals de
ment from Mg-rich solutions passing through the guano
blanket and reacting with the CaCO3 at the upper part
of the limestone blocks. An atmospheric source (dust) is
tentatively ascribed for Fe, although its presence in the
guano should not be neglected.
Taranakite is the last mineral to be presented under
the phosphate group. It was discovered in some bowl-
shaped features at the surface of highly weathered limes-
tone blocks in Cova de ses Rates Pinyades. The suc-
cession from the top to bottom is as follows: guano (3 to
7 cm), 1 cm of clay layer (mainly illite), a layer of soft tara-
nakite (2 to 8 mm), a crumbly crust of carbonate hydro-
xylapatite (2 mm to 1 cm), and weathered limestone.
The presence of taranakite was unequivocally con-
firmed by a set of XRD (Figure 18) and SEM-EDX analy-
ses. Microphotographs taken with a SEM show the tara-
nakite aggregates to be composed of hundreds of
almost hexagonal thin, platy crystals flattened on (0001)
like those illustrated in Figure 19. The precipitation of
taranakite in this occurrence is due to the fixation of K
and Al into a phosphate structure under a less acidic
environment. Both K and Al are derived from illite, whe-
reas ammonium and PO4 radical comes from the
decomposition of guano.
Figure 20: Residual accumulation of montmorillonite in Cova des Drac
(Es Rafal des Porcs, Santanyí).
Figura 20: Acumulació residual de montmorillonita a la Cova des Drac
(Es Rafal des Porcs, Santanyí).
None of the silicates identified in our investigated
samples are true cave minerals. Illite, montmorillonite
(grey-greenish clay-like material in Figure 20), and part
of the quartz were probably washed into the cave by
percolating and running waters. The micron-size flakes
of muscovite and majority of the low quartz grains
Carefully evaluating the information in Table 1, one
observed in the cave environment were derived from
can observe that 16 minerals assigned to 4 chemical
wind-blown sediments. All these minerals were identi-
classes were discovered in 18 caves (10 of them carved
fied in either phosphate- or carbonate-bearing samples
in Upper Miocene limestone and 8 in Mesozoic limesto-
and are allogenic in origin.
ne). Phosphates (6) and carbonates (5) are the best
represented groups. The only mineral present throug-
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rals share the second position. Each of these minerals
in the precipitation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate. J. Crystal
was found in four different caves, but only aragonite,
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te from Apulian caves (southern Italy): new mineralogical data. The
cave minerals, as quartz is more likely detrital (alloge-
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existence of two outstanding caves: Cova de sa Guita-
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(Western Mediterranean) approached from the perspective of coastal
bedrock and clay sediments (ardealite, brushite, carbo-
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nate-hydroxylapatite, collinsite, hydroxylapatite, tarana-
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Mediterranean region. 241-247. Alcalá de Henares.
to calcite inversion).
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The present investigation was intended as a mine-
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ralogy reconnaissance in selected caves from Mallorca
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230 pp. Berlin.
Island in order to reveal the scientific potential of this
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field. Further work on these and additional samples is
tància de les seves condicions faunístiques, Com. IV Simp. Biospe-
required to answer more specific questions of origin and
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Part of this study was undertaken while Bogdan P.
sea-level changes, upper Miocene reef complex, Mallorca, Spain.
Onac was on a Visiting Professor Scholarship supported
Sedimentology, 38: 243-270.
by the University of Balearic Islands. The hospitality of the
POMAR, L.; GINÉS, A. & GINÉS, J. (1979): Morfología, estructura y origen
Departament de Ciències de la Terra was greatly appre-
de los espeleotemas epiacuáticos. Endins, 5-6: 3-17.
POMAR, L.; RODRÍGUEZ-PEREA, A.; SÀBAT, F. & FORNÓS, J.J. (1990):
ciated. Thanks to Antoni Merino –Federació Balear d’Es-
Neogene stratigraphy of Mallorca Island. In: AGUSTÍ, J.; DOMÈNEC,
peleologia– and Joan Mayol –Conselleria de Medi
R.; JULIÀ, R. & MARTINELL, J. (eds.) Iberian Neogene Basins. Pale-
Ambient del Govern de les Illes Balears– who approved
ontologia i Evolució (Mem. Esp.), Field Guidebook. 271-320. Madrid.
RODRÍGUEZ-PEREA, A. & GELABERT, B. (1998): Geologia de Mallorca,
our entrance to sa Guitarreta, Rates Pinyades, and Vall-
In: FORNÓS, J.J. (ed.) Aspectes Geològics de les Balears: Mallorca,
gornera caves. Joan Cifre and Gabriel Martorell assisted
Menorca i Cabrera. Universitat de les Illes Balears. 11-38. Palma de
us with the X-ray and IR analyses, respectively. This study
SERVERA, J. (1995): The geographical distribution of karst in Mallorca.
was supported by the DGI of the Spanish Governement,
Endins, 20: 7-16.
Project BTE2002-04552-C03-02 and Consell de Mallorca
TUCCIMEI, P.; GINÉS, J.; DELITALA, C.; PAZZELLI, L.; TADDEUCCI, A.;
(Departament de Medi Ambient i Natura). Joe Kearns is
CLAMOR, B.; FORNÓS, J.J.; GINÉS, A. & GRÀCIA, F. (2000): Data-
ciones Th/U de espeleotemas freáticos recolectados a cotas inferio-
thanked for revising the English text.
res al actual nivel marino en cuevas costeras de Mallorca (España):
aportaciones a la construcción de una curva eustática detallada de los
últimos 300 ka para el Mediterráneo Occidental. Endins, 23: 59-71.
VESICA, P.L.; TUCCIMEI, P.; TURI, B.; FORNÓS, J.J.; GINÉS, A. &
GINÉS, J. (2000): Late Pleistocene paleoclimates and sea-level
change in the Mediterranean as inferred from stable isotope and U-
ARIFUZZAMAN, S.M. & ROHANI, S. (2004): Experimental study of
series studies of overgrowths on speleothems, Mallorca, Spain. Qua-
brushite precipitation. J. Crystal Growth, 267: 624-634.
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